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Bone Marrow Cancer Myeloma in Dogs


Multiple myeloma in dogs

Plasma cells are white blood cells that have been modified to make immunoglobulin. This is an immune protein or antibody needed for fighting disease. Multiple myeloma, a rare form of cancer, is a result of a clonal group of malignant (cancerous) plasma cells found in the bone marrow. Blackbirds 

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For multiple myeloma to be diagnosed, three of the four key features must be present: an immune protein from one clone (known as monoclonal Gammopathy), seen in the gamma area of protein analysis (known as protein electrophoresis); cancerous or high numbers of plasma cells within the bone marrow; destruction of bone areas (known lytic bone lesions); and a specific type of protein found inside the urine (known Bence Jones [light chain] proteinuria]. Bone Marrow Cancer Myeloma in Dogs

Types and Symptoms

Multiple myeloma can be attributed to bone destruction and bone infiltration, and effects of the tumor proteins (such as increased blood protein leading to kidney damage and sludging) and infiltration by cancerous cells. The extent and location of the disease will determine the symptoms.


A detailed history of your dog’s health and the onset of symptoms will be required. Your veterinarian may use the information you give to determine which organs are responsible for secondary symptoms. German Shepherd Rottweiler Mix If your dog is showing signs of disease, your veterinarian will conduct an extensive ophthalmological exam.

Multiple myeloma symptoms are similar to those of other diseases. The symptoms of multiple myeloma are similar to those of many other diseases. Your vet will have to rule out infections, tumors of any kind, and immune-mediated conditions. Your doctor will perform a complete blood profile. This includes a chemical blood profile and complete blood count. Diagnostic imaging includes X-rays of the vertebrae and limbs to check for bone lesions and ultrasound to inspect the internal organs.


For the most current information on this disease, your veterinarian may refer you to a vet oncologist. If your dog has high levels of urea (waste products) and calcium, you may need to have him admitted.

Hospitalization may also be necessary if your dog has a bleeding disorder or is suffering from a serious bacterial infection. You may need to have blood removed and replaced with the same volume of fluids. Radiation therapy can be used to treat a specific area of the dog’s body. It will be aggressively treated with antibiotics if there is a concurrent infection.


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