How are laser diodes made? This article will cover the Material used to make a laser diode, its Structure, Fabry-Perot resonant cavity, and Current injection. We will also cover the history of laser modules. Hopefully, this information will help you understand the process behind this amazing device. But before we dive into the science behind laser diodes, let’s take a look at a simple diagram that can help us understand the basics.
Materials used to make laser diodes
Laser diodes are constructed from materials known as semiconductors. These materials exhibit strong interatomic interactions and contain two distinct energy levels, the valence band and the conduction band. As an electron moves from the valence band to the conduction band, it encounters a barrier called the bandgap energy. The energy barrier forces electrons from the injected region to occupy the narrow active region. As a result, the resulting radiation reaches the light source, producing the beam.
Structure of laser diode
A laser diode is a semiconductor device with a semiconductor active layer that is a few nanometers thick. This active region is polished to form a mirror-like surface. The reflection from the surface increases the number of electrons and holes, thereby increasing the output power. The laser diode is also characterized by a three-step process of absorption, stimulated emission, and emission. The absorption and emission steps are used to create the light that is emitted from the laser diode.
The encapsulating structure of a semiconductor laser diode is a complex operation. The silicon substrate is used to reduce thermal stress and promote whole-package reliability. But this process decreases the overall cooling efficiency of the laser diode. The structure of the laser diode is an integral part of laser technology and has its own benefits. Let us discuss more about the structure of a laser diode.
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Fabry-Perot resonant cavity
The main ingredient of a Fabry-Perot resound ant cavity laser diode is a resonator. This device is characterized by its ability to produce standing waves of light, which are a result of the superposition of two waves in opposite directions. The resulting oscillating wave has nodes located at the reflective surfaces of the device.
This resonant cavity laser is used to create a narrow beam of light. Its active region has a refractive index that is different than the P and N-type materials. Because of this, the active region is a waveguide and light propagates only along it and perpendicular to the current direction. This means that the output spectrum of the laser diode is narrower than the total power of all signals.
The Fabry-Perot recombination mechanism is a unique feature of a resonant cavity laser. Unlike the other types of lasers, the gain region can oscillate simultaneously to several wavelengths. The resulting spectrum of light is characterized by “mode hopping”, whereby each wavelength propagates through the fiber at a slightly different velocity. This recombination process allows a laser to create the desired beam with an extremely narrow pulse duration and 100 GHz repetition rate.
Current injection in laser diode
To investigate the effects of current injection on output power and stability of a laser diode, we first performed stability analysis using three different power regimes and measured the output power characteristics. We also studied the stability of the injected diode at three injection powers and presented our results to aid in the selection of suitable diodes. To further understand the effects of current injection on output power, we examined the FP-diode, a type of laser diode with a single-mode operation.
The response of a laser diode to a deep sinusoidal injection current is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The spectral broadening and wavelength shift that result from deep sinusoidal injection current modulation are well demonstrated in numerical analysis. Experiments conducted on an laser diode demonstrate good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results. The measured light-current curve was fitted with a third-order polynomial.